Holy Trinity Male Monastery was founded in 1566 by decree of Tsar Ivan the Terrible. The monastery was created for missionary purposes to spread Orthodoxy among the peoples living in the Volga region which had their own ethnic religions. The life in the monastery was guided by the internal rules.
In 1609 the monastery was burned and devastated, and the prior Archimandrite Gelasius was killed.
In the 17th century the monastery possessed six villages, almost 900 acres of land and fisheries on the Volga river.
In 1764 the monastery lost all its possessions and villages and was ranked as 3rd class. In 1767, the monastery was visited by Empress Catherine II. In 1789 the Vladimir-Sretenskaya Pustyn was added to the monastery’s possessions.
By decree of Paul I at the late 18th century the monastery received lands (about 30 ha) and lakes for fishing.